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    环保部:“十二五”水专项工作取得进展,“十三五”将聚焦京津冀区域和太湖流域

    时间:2017/9/4 13:45:18   作者:   来源:   阅读:3   评论:0
    内容摘要:水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(以下简称“水专项”)旨在解决制约我国社会经济发展的水污染重大瓶颈问题,构建我国流域水污染治理技术体系和水环境管理技术体系,为重点流域污染物减排、水质改善和饮用水安全保障提供强有力科技支撑。  水专项实施8年来,按照“控源减排”、“减负修复”和“综合...

     水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(以下简称“水专项”)旨在解决制约我国社会经济发展的水污染重大瓶颈问题,构建我国流域水污染治理技术体系和水环境管理技术体系,为重点流域污染物减排、水质改善和饮用水安全保障提供强有力科技支撑。

      水专项实施8年来,按照“控源减排”、“减负修复”和“综合调控”的步骤,围绕辽河、海河、淮河、太湖、滇池、巢湖等重点流域开展科技攻关和工程示范。共建设了500余项科技示范工程,已获得授权专利1400余项,提出300余项标准和技术规范,为《水污染防治行动计划》的实施提供了强有力的科技支撑,较好地完成了阶段性任务和目标,提升了本领域的科技创新能力,为后期水专项的实施奠定了基础。

      环境保护部科技标准司副司长刘志全介绍说,迄今,水专项共研发了1000余项关键技术,取得7个方面技术成果:一是深化水生态功能分区的原理与方法,构建流域水质目标管理体系,研发水环境关键指标的在线监测与遥测、预警预报关键技术;二是研发化工、轻工、冶金、纺织印染、医药等5个重点行业的污水处理关键技术,对造纸和食品等行业废水的资源化处理取得了新进展;三是建立城市水环境系统功能定位、源解析及其水质响应的新方法,开发城市污水提标改造关键技术;四是研发湖泊蓝藻水华暴发的监测、预警应用技术,构建蓝藻水华的拦截、收集浓聚与处置利用技术系统;五是研发多类型湖滨带生态修复技术,建立入湖河流水质生物生态强化净化工艺;六是开发微污染饮用水源水质改善、监测预警及针对突发性污染事故应急供水净化关键技术,建立高藻、高有机物、高氨氮、含嗅味原水处理及有毒副产物控制新工艺;七是提出跨界生态补偿与水污染赔偿等政策措施,在典型流域试行排污许可证制度。

      在辽河流域,建立了辽、浑、太干流城市群及源头和河口区示范区,开展行业、城镇污水治理和水环境修复示范,支撑辽河流域“十二五”期间干支流全面消除劣V类水质,干流全面达到IV类水。在海河流域,建成了北运河(北京段)、北三河(天津段)和子牙河(河北段)3个河流水质改善成套整装技术集成综合示范区。在淮河流域,构建并实施了基于废水资源化与水质目标管理的多闸坝基流匮乏型重污染河流“三三三”治理模式。在太湖流域,重点突破了系统控源减排、清水流域修复、城市黑臭河道整治等关键技术,建立了太湖西北部竺山湾和太湖新城、贡湖湾等综合示范区。在滇池流域,紧密结合流域污染防治规划和地方重点治污工作,研发了基于固相碳源脱氮入河面源污染控制等多项技术,建立了新宝象河入湖河流小流域综合示范区。在巢湖流域,按照控源减排减总量、生态修复扩容量的思路,建立了南淝河和十五里河重污染入湖河流综合示范区,实现在示范区水质消除劣Ⅴ类的目标。

      “十三五”是水专项的收官阶段。水专项领导小组将按照国务院和三部门的统一要求,充分发挥各成员单位和行业牵头组织部门的作用,坚决聚焦瘦身,将专项流域综合示范资金和项目重点聚焦到京津冀区域和太湖流域。

      水专项河流主题专家组组长、中科院生态中心研究员单保庆介绍说,京津冀区域立足解决京津冀一体化面临的重大水环境水安全问题。要以城市黑臭水体消除和水生态文明建设为核心,以水资源-水污染-水生态“三位一体”协同解决的系统工程思路为主要技术路线,实施一批大型水环境综合整治工程,带动京津冀核心区(北京-廊坊-天津)水环境质量实现根本性转变。要以京津冀地区重要水源地保护及供水安全保障为方向,建成一批水源水质风险防范、监控预警与安全供水全过程保障的民生工程,为京津冀饮用水安全长效保障机制夯实技术基础。要以冬奥会水生态与水安全保障重大需求为目标,按照“山水林田湖”一体化生态保护的技术路线,实施一批以水源地涵养、河流生态修复与水安全保障平台建设创新工程,为冬奥会高水平举办提供强有力的技术支撑。要以水资源与水环境一体化管理为抓手,创新京津冀跨区域水环境水资源一体化管理制度;以试验区先行先试的方式,形成以提高水环境质量为核心的新型管理体系,为革新现有水环境管理制度和相关政策法规提供技术支撑和实施案例。

      水专项监督评估专家组组长、中国工程院院士张全兴介绍说,太湖流域将针对湖泊流域控源减负与水质目标耦合失衡、蓝藻水华暴发、湖泊水生态系统功能退化等水环境问题,开展湖泊流域氮磷污染精准控制、水循环重构和水生态系统重建、饮用水品质提升、流域水环境质量监控、以及水环境管理政策和平台的技术研究,并在太湖全流域(一湖)开展精准化大数据智慧环保管理平台构建和业务化运行,开展污染物深度削减、生态重点修复和饮水水质全面提升的工程技术综合示范,形成富营养化湖泊水环境污染控制和水环境管理两大技术体系,为完成太湖流域乃至全国湖泊水环境治理目标提供有力的科技支撑。

      水专项在今后的实施过程中,将彻底分离水专项科技目标和治理目标,注重重大成果的应用。要大胆创新体制机制,明确各方责任。要实现专家专职化,改革项目遴选机制,严格工程管理,防控廉政风险。


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